Zeskamp 1970-1971
Dutch Domestic Series

Presenters:
Dick Passchier
Barend Barendse

Referees:
Unknown

Director:
Dick van Bommel

Producer:
Dick Van't Sant

An NCRV Production

Key:
Domestic Heats
l = Qualified for Round 2 with Top 6 League Placing
 l = Qualified for Round 3 with Top 4 League Placing
Round 3
l = Qualified for Super Final

l = Gold Trophy (1st in League)

l = Silver Trophy (2nd in League)

l = Bronze Trophy (3rd in League)
Super Final
l = Gold Trophy   l = Silver Trophy

 

NL

Zeskamp 1970-1971

Round 1, Heat 1

Event Staged: Saturday 10th October 1970
Venue: Veemarkthallen (Livestock Market), Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

European Transmissions (Local Timings):
NCRV (NL):
Saturday 10th October 1970, 8.20-9.45pm (Live)
Not transmitted in Great Britain

Weather Conditions: Not applicable as event was staged indoors

Teams: Alkmaar v. De Bilt v. Doetinchem v. Drachten v.
Linne v. Rolde v. Winschoten v. Zoetermeer

Game Results and Standings

Result

 Team

Points

League

Aggregate

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
5th
7th
8th

 L • Linne
 DT • Drachten
 RRolde
 W Winschoten
 Zoetermeer
 De Bilt
 Doetinchem
 Alkmaar

34
33
26
24
22
22
18
12

8
7
6
5
4

3
2
1

The Host Town

Utecht, Utrecht

Utrecht is the capital and, with a population of around 332,000 inhabitants, is the most populous city in the province of the same name. It is located 35km (21¾ miles) south-east of Amsterdam, 48km (29¾ miles) north-east of Rotterdam and 56km (34¾ miles) east of Den Haag. Along with these three cities, Utrecht is part of the Randstad conurbation - a megalopolis with a combined population of over 7,000,000 inhabitants (almost half of the country’s total population of 16 million) and is one of the largest metropolitan regions in Europe. Utrecht was once the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age (the 17th century), when it was succeeded by Amsterdam as the country's cultural centre and most populous city.

Although there is some evidence of earlier inhabitation, the founding date of the city is usually related to the construction of a Roman fortification (castellum), probably built in around AD 50. A series of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius (10 BC-AD 54) decided the empire should not expand north. In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was simply Traiectum, denoting its location at a possible Rhine crossing. Traiectum became Dutch ‘Trecht’ with the ‘U’ from Old Dutch ‘uut’ (down-river) added to distinguish U-trecht from Maas-tricht.
 

A series of lasers lights illuminate the belfry of the
112m-high Dom Tower in the centre of Utrecht

 

The location on the banks of the river Rhine allowed Utrecht to become an important trade centre in the Northern Netherlands. The growing town of Utrecht was granted city rights by Henry V (1086-1125) in 1122. When the main flow of the Rhine moved south, the old bed, which still flowed through the heart of the town became evermore canalised and the wharf system was built as an inner city harbour system. On the wharfs, storage facilities (werfkelders) were built, on top of which the main street, including houses was constructed. In 1579, the northern seven provinces (Gelderland, Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Overijssel, Friesland and the combined Groningen and Ommelanden) signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they decided to join forces against Spanish rule. The Union of Utrecht is seen as the beginning of the Dutch Republic.

In the early 19th century, the role of Utrecht as a fortified town had become obsolete. The town walls could now be demolished to allow for expansion. The moats remained intact and formed an important feature of the Zocher Plantsoen, an English style landscape park that remains largely intact today. In 1843, growth of the city increased when a railway connecting Utrecht to Amsterdam was opened. After that, Utrecht gradually became the main hub of the Dutch railway network. With the industrial revolution finally gathering speed in the Netherlands and the ramparts taken down, Utrecht began to grow far beyond the medieval centre. During World War II (1939-1945), Utrecht was held by the Germans until the general German surrender of the Netherlands on 5th May 1945. Canadian troops, that surrounded the city, entered and liberated the citizens on 7th May 1945.

Today, Utrecht's skyline is dominated by the Dom Tower, the tallest belfry in the Netherlands and originally part of Sint-Maartenskerk (Church of Saint Martin). An ongoing debate is over whether any building in or near the centre of the city should surpass the height of the 112m (367ft 5½in) high Dom Tower. The second tallest, the Rabobank Tower, was completed in 2010 and stands 105m (344ft 6in) tall. Plans are in place for two antennae which will increase that height to 120m (393ft 8½in).

Like most Dutch cities, Utrecht has an extensive network of cycle paths, making cycling safe and popular. 33% of journeys within the city are by bicycle, more than any other mode of transport. (Cars, for example, account for 30% of trips). Bicycles are used by young and old people, and by individuals and families. They are mostly traditional, upright, steel-framed bicycles, with few or no gears. There are also barrow bikes, for carrying shopping or small children. As thousands of bicycles are parked haphazardly in town, creating an eyesore but also impeding pedestrians, the City Council decided in 2014 to build the world's largest bicycle parking station, near the Central Railway Station. This 3-floor construction, to be completed in 2018, will cost an estimated 48 million Euro (£36,275,000) and will hold 12,500 bicycles!

The Venue

Veemarkthallen

The games were played, like many others in the past in Zeskamp, at the main livestock market hall called Veemarkthallen.
 

The Veemarkthallen in Utrecht is currently used
for exhibition and specialist shows

 

During the latter part of the 1970s, the hall was renovated and was also used for concerts and other major events held in the city. The livestock market no longer takes place in Utrecht and the hall is now known as the Tuindorp Hal (translated into English as ‘garden village hall’) and is used for major exhibitions and specialist shows.

Additional Information

The format of Zeskamp was revised for 1970-1971 compared to previous years: there were now eight teams competing and qualification for each phase was based upon league tables, with heat winners awarded 8 league points down to 8th placed teams receiving 1pt. The series opened up with two preliminary heats after which two teams were eliminated. The six teams that were involved after this first stage all qualified for Jeux Sans Frontières and also continued to battle it out in Zeskamp.

Made in Colour • This programme may exist in Dutch Archives

 

NL

Zeskamp 1970-1971

Round 1, Heat 2

Event Staged: Saturday 7th November 1970
Venue: Frieslandhal (Friesland Hall), Leeuwarden, Friesland, Netherlands

European Transmissions (Local Timings):
NCRV (NL):
Saturday 7th November 1970, 8.20-9.35pm (Live)
Not transmitted in Great Britain

Weather Conditions: Not applicable as event was staged indoors

Teams: Alkmaar v. De Bilt v. Doetinchem v. Drachten v.
Linne v. Rolde v. Winschoten v. Zoetermeer

Game Results and Standings

Result

 Team

Points

League

Aggregate

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th

 L • Linne l
 RRolde
l
 Z Zoetermeer
l
 W Winschoten
l
 DT • Drachten
l
 DC • Doetinchem
l
 B De Bilt
 A Alkmaar

16
14
10
9
8
7
6
4

16
13
10
10
11
5
5
2

Linne qualified for Jeux Sans Frontières at Riccione, Italy:
staged on Wednesday 9th June 1971

Drachten qualified for Jeux Sans Frontières at Solothurn, Switzerland:
staged on Wednesday 23rd June 1971

Zoetermeer qualified for Jeux Sans Frontières at Vichy, France:
staged on Wednesday 21st July 1971

Winschoten qualified for Jeux Sans Frontières at Offenburg, West Germany:
staged on Wednesday 4th August 1971

Rolde qualified for Jeux Sans Frontières at Blackpool, Great Britain:
staged on Wednesday 18th August 1971

Doetinchem qualified for Jeux Sans Frontières at Oostende, Belgium:
staged on Wednesday 1st September 1971

The Host Town

Leeuwarden, Friesland

Leeuwarden (known locally as Ljouwert) is a city with a population of around 110,000 inhabitants and is the capital of the Dutch province of Friesland. It is located 111km (69miles) north-east of Amsterdam, 25km (15½ miles) east of Harlingen and 51km (31½ miles) west of Groningen.

The area has been occupied since the 10th century, although recently remains of houses dating back to the 2nd century were discovered during a dig near the De Oldehove (an unfinished church tower), and was granted a town charter in 1435. Situated along the Middelzee, it was an active trade centre, until the waterway silted up in the 15th century. During World War II and after extensive occupation by the German forces, the Royal Canadian Dragoons, disobeying direct orders, charged into the heavily defended city on 15th April 1945, and defeated the Germans, who were driven out by the next day. Since then, the Royal Canadian Dragoons still fly the flag of the city of Leeuwarden wherever they are stationed.
 

The Froskepôlemolen is the last surviving smock mill in
Leeuwarden and dates back to 1896

 

There is much uncertainty about the origin of the city's name. The second syllable is easily explained with 'warden' being the Dutch word for an artificial dwelling hill or terp. The first part of the name, 'leeuw', means lion in modern standard Dutch. This interpretation corresponds with the coat of arms adopted by the city, which features a heraldic lion. However, modern Dutch was not used in this region in the Middle Ages, when the city was called Lintarwrde. Some scholars argue that the name of the city is derived from leeu, a corruption of 'luw' (Dutch for sheltered from the wind) or from 'lee' (a Dutch word for water circulation). The latter more fitting the watery province of Friesland.

Along the pedestrianised street of Nieuwstad is De Waaghuis (weigh-house) which was originally a public building at or within which goods, and the like, were weighed. With public control of the weight of goods deemed to be of great importance and prior to the establishment of international standards for weights, it was managed by the local authority which would use it for the levying of taxes on goods transported through or sold within the city. Therefore the weigh-house would often be near a market square or town centre. Between 1550 and 1690, a weigh-house would have had a more sinister use. People accused of witchcraft were at times brought to a weigh-house in order to be subjected to a ‘witch test’. If a person was found to be lighter than a set weight, he or she was deemed guilty! This was similar to the use of a ducking stool.

The Froskepôlemolen is the last surviving smock mill from over 130 known to have stood in Leeuwarden. Dating back to 1896, the mill was rebuilt and relocated to another part of Leeuwarden in 1962 after it had become surrounded by industrial buildings. A smock mill is a type of windmill that consists of a sloping, horizontally weather boarded or thatched tower, usually with six or eight sides. It is topped with a roof or cap that rotates to bring the sails into the wind. This type of windmill got its name from its resemblance to smocks worn by farmers in an earlier period.

Every year on Ascension Day (39 days after Easter Sunday), Leeuwarden traditionally organises the ‘Bloemetjesmarkt’ (flower market). It is Holland’s longest market with a sea of flowers as far as the eye can see, right through the city’s centre on the Lange Marktstraat and Tesselschadestraat. The market embraces some two hundred stalls selling flowers and plants. From early in the morning to late in the afternoon, it draws thousands of people who return home with bags, buckets and sometimes carts filled with plants and flowers. On average the Leeuwarden flower market is visited by some 30,000 people per year. Leeuwarden is also the site of the country's largest cattle market.

The Venue

Frieslandhal

The games were played at the Frieslandhal which has had a very chequered history over the years. On 1st June 1953, the city of Leeuwarden took the decision to move a cattle market site onto the Heliconweg, which itself was to become part of the future ring-road at Leeuwarden. Originally designed as an open-air market hall - the Frieslandhal - was opened to the public in mid-July 1956. During its construction the idea for it to become a fully covered market increasingly gathered support. By October 1959, the local councillors relented to the continual pressure and decided that a large hall, which could cover the entire market, would be constructed. Work on the covered hall began in February 1961 and the work was completed in just over 2½ years.
 

The Frieslandhal in Leeuwarden in the 1960s

 

To mark the opening of the Frieslandhal on 16th September 1963 by Queen Juliana, a five-day exhibition was held from 16th-21st September 1963. By the early 1980s, the Frieslandhal had been demolished and a new hall - Veemarkthal - was built in its place. By the 1990s the Veemarkthal had been upgraded and was now entitled the EATC (European Agri-Nutri Trade Centre). However, following an accidental fire on 23rd November 1996 (thought to have been started by youths playing with matches in the hay), the hall was destroyed. Not to be perturbed the local council rebuilt the hall and it was given a new name of the FEC (Frisian Expo Centre). However in 2005 the FEC was renamed and re-branded and now stands proud as the WTC Expo Leeuwarden (World Trade Centre Exhibition Hall).

Photographs from this Event

 

The Drachten team in action in this event

 

Additional Information

It is unclear how Doetinchem qualified over De Bilt, as the latter team appears to have had the same league points as the former (and were also awarded 3pts instead of 4pts for an equal 5th in Heat 1). There is of course the possibility that the results we have access to are not 100% accurate.

The teams of Zoetermeer and Doetinchem were allocated their International Heats after the Round 3 qualifiers had chosen their preferred heats

Made in Colour • This programme may exist in Dutch Archives

 

NL

Zeskamp 1970-1971

Round 2, Heat 1

Event Staged: Saturday 5th December 1970
Venue: Groenoordhallen (North Lobby Hall), Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands

European Transmissions (Local Timings):
NCRV (NL):
Saturday 5th December 1970, 8.00-9.35pm (Live)
Not transmitted in Great Britain

Weather Conditions: Not applicable as event was staged indoors

Teams: Doetinchem v. Drachten v. Linne v.
Rolde v. Winschoten v. Zoetermeer

Game Results and Standings

Result

 Team

Points

League

Aggregate

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th

 L • Linne
 DT • Drachten
 W Winschoten
 DC • Doetinchem
 Z Zoetermeer
 RRolde

25
23
22
20
14
12

22

16

14

8

12

14

The Host Town

Leiden, Zuid-Holland

Leiden is a city which lies at sea level elevation with a population of around 120,000 inhabitants in the province of South Holland. It is situated on the Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) river, a 52km (32¼ miles) branch of the Rhine, and is located 16km (10 miles) north-east of Den Haag and 36km (22¼ miles) south-west of Amsterdam. The city lies at what has traditionally been an important junction where waterways and roads cross and will enchant all who visit. The city is famous for its almshouses, university, museums and glorious history. The spirit of the Golden Age lives on here, a place where artist Rembrandt (1606-1669) was born and inspired so many other influential painters. But even after this era, Leiden continued to attract scientists, artists and industry. The canals, the historical buildings, the alleyways, the treasuries of knowledge, culture and science in Leiden are definitely worth a visit.

By the end of the 15th century, Leiden was the largest city in the county of Holland. This was largely due to the international cloth-making industry. However, the economic tide began to turn with the advent of the 16th century. The reformation led to mass prosecution of Protestants and in 1572, Leiden joined the Dutch resistance against Spain's oppression. The people of Leiden succumbed to disease and starvation and the Spanish nearly conquered the city. However, they successfully drove the troops out on 3rd October 1574. The great liberation, known as Leidens Ontzet (Relief of Leiden), is still lavishly celebrated today. This huge party is not the only result of the Spanish occupation but also that the city was allegedly given the university as a reward for its heroic resistance.

 

Morspoort, Leiden's west gate, was constructed in 1669
and was originally used as a prison

 

The Relief marked the beginning of a new Golden Age. In 1577, tens of thousands of Dutch people from the south flocked to Leiden on account of their Calvinist faith. These were experienced textile workers and business people who helped revive the failing wool industry in Leiden with new products, techniques, capital and labour and Leiden became the second largest city after Amsterdam. Despite major plague epidemics, the population quadrupled resulting in the city being expanded in 1611, 1644 and again in 1659, when the network of canals was laid out in its current incarnation. At the height of the boom around 1670, the city was densely populated by some 60,000 people. After Amsterdam, Leiden is the city with the most canals with the city’s historic centre having more than 28km (17¼ miles) of canals and waterways. To cross all these waterways, you obviously need bridges, and Leiden has no less than 88!

The city’s wool industry was steadily declining in the 18th century with work drying up and people moving elsewhere. This downturn caused by the failing wool industry led to unrest and the ongoing war waged by Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) only aggravated the situation. The final straw came when Leiden was struck by catastrophic disaster. On 12th January 1807, a ship loaded with 17,400kg (38,360lb) of gunpowder exploded in the middle of Leiden, killing 151 persons. Over 2000 others were injured and some 220 homes were destroyed. King Louis Bonaparte (1778-1846) personally visited the city to provide assistance to the victims. Although located in the centre of the city, the area destroyed remained empty for many years, with the space eventually turned into a public park in 1886.

After 1815, the city began to show signs of recovery once more when Leiden's industry began to diversify during the second half of the century with emerging new sectors such as metal, printing and canning. Leiden underwent a dramatic transformation during the last 30 years of the 20th century. In the 1960s, it was a rundown industrial city with the university as its main claim to fame. By the early 1980s, the industries had disappeared, and unemployment was rampant. However, the city managed to again bounce back by tapping into new sectors.

The Venue

Groenoordhallen

The games were played in the Groenoordhallen which was built in 1969 and was a complex of halls originally used to host the large regional cattle market in the city. For this reason it was located virtually in the centre of the city. However, following the FMD (Foot and Mouth Disease) crisis of 2001, the cattle market was no longer viable and finally closed its doors in 2005. Following some renovation work, the hall was reopened and hosted many national and international trade fairs, events, exams, product presentations, conferences, concerts and parties. Examples include Disney on Ice, paranormal shows and concerts by Genesis, U2, The Police, Dire Straits, Iron Maiden, Fleetwood Mac, Queen, Metallica, Santana, Kiss, The Osmonds and the Backstreet Boys.
 

The former Groenoordhallen which was demolished in 2010

 

In 2006, the Groenoordhallen played host to tennis. A Davis Cup promotion / relegation match between the Netherlands and the Czech Republic was held there, with the Netherlands losing 1-4 and being relegated. However despite all its uses, it was decided that the hall had ran its life by the middle of 2009, and in order to make way for homes and business premises, the Groenoordhallen would have to be demolished. The demolition was postponed until mid-2010 and when the work finally started, only the tower and part of Escher Groenoord Plaza remained.

Additional Information

The league tables continue to include the Round 1 scores into Round 2 and the points awarded run from 6pts for 1st place to 1pt for 6th place.

Made in Colour • This programme may exist in Dutch Archives

 

NL

Zeskamp 1970-1971

Round 2, Heat 2

Event Staged: Saturday 2nd January 1971
Venue: Brabanthallen (Brabant Hall), 's-Hertongenbosch, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands

European Transmissions (Local Timings):
NCRV (NL):
Saturday 2nd January 1971, 8.20-9.35pm (Live)
Not transmitted in Great Britain

Weather Conditions: Not applicable as event was staged indoors

Teams: Doetinchem v. Drachten v. Linne v.
Rolde v. Winschoten v. Zoetermeer

Game Results and Standings

Result

 Team

Points

League

Aggregate

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
4th
4th

 R • Rolde
 DT • Drachten
 W Winschoten
 L Linne
 Z Zoetermeer
 DC • Doetinchem

26
25
19
16
16
16

20
21
18
25
15
11

The Host Town

's-Hertogenbosch, Noord-Brabant

's-Hertongenbosch, literally ‘The Duke's Forest’, is a city with a population of around 140,000 inhabitants in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It is located 80km (50 miles) south of Amsterdam, 60km (37¼ miles) south-west of Rotterdam and 39km (24¼ miles) west of Nijmegen. In speech, the Dutch seldom use the formal 's-Hertogenbosch but rather the colloquial Den Bosch meaning ‘The Forest’.

 

De Moriaan, the oldest brick house in Netherlands, dates to the 13th century

 

The city's official name refers to Henry I, Duke of Brabant (1165-1235), whose family had owned a large estate at nearby Orthen for at least four centuries. He founded a new town located on some forested dunes in the middle of a marsh. At age 26, he granted 's-Hertogenbosch city rights and the corresponding trade privileges in 1185. His reason for founding the city was to protect his own interests against encroachment from Gelre and Holland (historical counties) and, from the outset, conceived the city as a fortress. However, the city was destroyed in 1203 in a joint expedition of Gelre and Holland, but was soon rebuilt. Some remnants of the original city walls can still be seen today. In the late 15th century, a much larger wall was erected to protect the greatly expanded settled area with artificial waterways being dug to serve as a city moat, through which the rivers Dommel and Aa were diverted. Until 1520, the city flourished, becoming the second largest population centre in the territory of the present Netherlands, after Utrecht.

After World War II, plans were made to modernise the old city, by filling in the canals, removing or modifying some ramparts and redeveloping historic neighbourhoods. Before these plans could come into effect however, the central government declared the city a protected townscape with most of the historic elements having been preserved. In contrast to cities like Rotterdam, 's-Hertogenbosch survived the Second World War relatively unscathed.

's-Hertogenbosch has the oldest remaining brick house in the Netherlands, 'De Moriaan', which was built at the beginning of the 13th century. In the 1960s, De Moriaan was renovated to its former glory based on a famous 16th century Dutch painting called De Lakenmarkt van 's-Hertogenbosch (The fabric market of 's-Hertogenbosch). In the north of the old city, the hexagonal powder arsenal, or Kruithuis, still exists, one of only two of its kind in the country. The city has its own food speciality, the Bossche Bol, a giant profiterole, 12cm (5½in) in diameter and somewhat larger than a tennis ball, which is filled with whipped cream and coated with dark chocolate.

Once a year, the city changes its name to Oeteldonk. Contrary to popular belief, ‘oetel’ in the name is not a referral to a frog but a facetious reference to the 's-Hertogenbosch Bishop Adrianus Godschalk (1819-1892) who came from the village of Den Dungen and often expressed censure against the 'pagan' carnival festivities. ‘Donk’ is a reference to a dry place in the marsh. The frog is however a symbol often used during Carnival, and it is a symbol of the Oeteldonk Marsh. This change however only lasts for the three days of carnival, even though the original meaning has long disappeared into the background. During this three-day festival, the current elected mayor hands over his duties temporarily to ‘Peer vaan den Muggenheuvel tot den Bobberd’, the bürgermeister of the carnival.

The Venue

Brabanthallen

The games at this heat were played in the Brabanthallen which was the world’s largest livestock market when it opened its doors in 1931.
 

The original Brabanthallen in 's-Hertogenbosch

 

Very little is known of the building but its opening coincided with that of the then tallest building in the world, the Empire State Building in New York.

Made in Colour • This programme may exist in Dutch Archives

 

NL

Zeskamp 1970-1971

Round 2, Heat 3

Event Staged: Saturday 30th January 1971
Venue: Sportspaleis 'Ahoy' (Ahoy Sports Palace), Zuidwijk,
Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands

European Transmissions (Local Timings):
NCRV (NL):
Saturday 30th January 1971, 8.20-9.35pm (Live)
Not transmitted in Great Britain

Weather Conditions: Not applicable as event was staged indoors

Teams: Doetinchem v. Drachten v. Linne v.
Rolde v. Winschoten v. Zoetermeer

Game Results and Standings

Result

 Team

Points

League

Aggregate

1st
1st
3rd
4th
5th
6th

 DTDrachten l
 L • Linne
l
 W Winschoten
l
 RRolde
l
 Z Zoetermeer
 DC • Doetinchem

23
23
20
17
16
14

27

31

20

23

17

12

The Host Town

Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland

Rotterdam is the second largest city in Netherlands with a population of around 630,000 inhabitants. It is located in the Zuid Holland province on the Nieuwe Maas river, 21km (13 miles) south-east of Den Haag, 57km (35½ miles) south-west of Amsterdam and 98km (61 miles) west of Arnhem.

The port is the largest cargo port in Europe and the 10th largest in the world. Its logistic success is based on its strategic location on the North Sea, directly at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas permitting waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the highly industrialised Ruhr region.

The city dates from at least AD 900 with a settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as it was then known, from ‘rot’ (muddy) and ‘a’ (water), thus 'muddy water'). Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte or 'Rotterdam' was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat (High Street). On 7th July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland (1307-1345) granted city rights to Rotterdam, which then had approximately 2,000 inhabitants.

 

An aerial view of the bustling shipping port of Rotterdam

 

The port of Rotterdam grew slowly but steadily into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six 'chambers' of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), the Dutch East India Company. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872. The city and harbour started to expand on the south bank of the river.

During World War I (1914-1918), the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its location in between England, Germany and occupied Belgium. During World War II (1939-1945), the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10th May 1940. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance. On 15th May 1940, the Dutch army was finally forced to capitulate, following Hitler's bombing of Rotterdam the previous day and his threats to bomb other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam was almost completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe. Some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed.

Rotterdam was gradually rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s. It remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more 'liveable' city centre with a new skyline.

One of the two most popular tourist attractions of the city is the Zomercarnaval (Summer Carnival) which takes place annually in late July or early August. The first carnival was staged on 4th August 1984 and it offers residents and tourists, the opportunity to experience a taste of those celebrated in Latin America and the Cape Verde Islands albeit some what dampened down by the cooler north European climate. Although the street parade attracts the most visitors, the carnival is a multi-day event and attracts almost one million people a year to the city. On Saturday, a week prior to the parade, a new Carnival Queen is elected at the Cruise Terminal Building on the Wilhelmina Pier. The following Thursday, a Beach Party is held at the Strand aan de Maas, an large open area on the opposite side of the Nieuwe Maas river to the Cruise Terminal Building, at which several brass bands, DJ's and the newly chosen Queen attend. On Friday evening, the Battle of Drums is staged, an event in which several brass bands compete to be named the official Zomercarnaval brass band and earn a spot in the street parade, as well as being invited to take part in the famous Notting Hill Carnival in London during the August Bank Holiday weekend. The parade, which is held on the Saturday and is the culmination of the week-long celebrations, includes brass bands and thousands of dancers and two ‘live on stage’ concerts at the Coolsingel and the Churchillplein until late in the evening.

The second of the top attractions is the Diergaarde Blijdorp (Blijdorp Zoo) which was designed by architect Sybold van Revesteyn (1889-1983) following damage sustained to the old zoo building during bombing raids on 10th May 1940. Constructed slightly north of its original location, street names such as Diergaardesingel (Zoo Lane) still recall the old zoo. Despite current trends for animal rights, the zoo houses a vast variety of animals and birds from all over the globe. However, with funding from the city being reduced annually, its survival is in jeopardy.

The Venue

Sportspaleis 'Ahoy'

This heat was staged at the Sportspaleis ‘Ahoy’ (part of the Ahoy Rotterdam complex), an indoor sporting arena standing in the Dijkzigtterrein, part of the reconstructed Rotterdam port area which had been severely damaged by bombing in the Second World War (1939-1945). The site had been home to an exhibition hall which had been built to celebrate the reconstruction work with a special 'Rotterdam Ahoy!' exhibition. Amusingly, for some years after, when the dot of the exclamation mark had dropped off the sign, the exhibition hall became known as the Ahoy-Hal and no-one seemed to mind. The hall staged many national and international events, including a notable exhibition of the work of celebrated American architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959). It also proved its worth as a reception centre for the victims of the North Sea flood, a major natural disaster on the night of Saturday 31st January 1953 that affected the coastlines of the Netherlands, Belgium and England, claiming over two thousand lives and displaced thousands more.
 

The main entrance to the Ahoy Rotterdam
with its iconic red main entrance logo

 

Building work on the Ahoy Rotterdam commenced in 1968 and by 1970, three exhibition halls and the Sports Palace were completed. The first event to be staged at the new facilities was the Femina family fair, held in September 1970. Three months later, on Thursday 15th January 1971, the Ahoy was officially opened by HRH Prince Claus (1926-2002). Audience capacity of the arena was set at 10,000 spectators and the complex's impressive design by architects Van der Stoep and Groosman garnered a number of international awards for the special steel structures used in the arena's construction.

Since the Ahoy's auspicious opening, it has been the venue for the 1975 European Final of the BBC / Transworld Sport programme Superstars (hosted by British Jeux Sans Frontières presenter, David Vine (1935-2009)), the 2007 Junior Eurovision Song Contest and has played host to ATP World Tennis Tour and International Dog Show events for many years. It is also popular as a concert venue and has seen the likes of Elton John, Iron Maiden, Deep Purple, Alanis Morissette, Rush, Shakira and the popular Dutch singer Lee Towers play and make live concert video programmes there. The Ahoy has been expanded on a number of occasions, including major renovation in 1998 to create today's multifunctional venue. It was renamed Ahoy Rotterdam at around this time and celebrated its 40th Anniversary in January 2011.

Photographs from this Event

 

A Rolde team member tries to keep her balance

 

The team captains of joint winning teams Drachten and Linne

 

Additional Information

The qualifiers for Round 3 (Linne, Drachten, Rolde and Winschoten) were allowed to choose which Jeux Sans Frontières International Heats their teams would go to, with Linne (as league leaders) getting the first choice.

Made in Colour • This programme may exist in Dutch Archives

 

NL

Zeskamp 1970-1971

Round 3, Heat 1

Event Staged: Saturday 27th February 1971
Venue: Martinihal, Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

European Transmissions (Local Timings):
NCRV (NL):
Saturday 27th February 1970, 8.20-9.35pm (Live)
Not transmitted in Great Britain

Weather Conditions: Not applicable as event was staged indoors

Teams: Drachten v. Linne v.
Rolde v. Winschoten

Game Results and Standings

Result

 Team

Points

League Aggregate

1st
2nd
3rd
4th

 DTDrachten
 W Winschoten
 LLinne
 RRolde

19
18
16
15

31

25

33

24

The Host Town

Groningen, Groningen

Groningen is the capital and largest city of its eponymous province in the north-east of the Netherlands. It has a population of just under 200,000 inhabitants and is located 51km (31½ miles) east of Leeuwarden, 85km (52¾ miles) north of Zwolle, 147km (91¼ miles) north-east of Amsterdam and 35km (21¾ miles) west of the German border.

 

The Festung Boutange is an abandoned fortress
built during the Eighty Years' War

 

The city was founded on the northernmost point of the Hondsrug area (a large ridge of sand on which much of the province and neighbouring Drenthe is built). Groningen was founded around AD 950 at the site of a Roman camp and has a rich history, which can clearly be seen from the old medieval buildings in the downtown area. However, the oldest document referring to Groningen's existence only dates from 1040. In the 13th century, when the city was an important trade centre, its inhabitants built a city wall to underline its authority. The city had a strong influence on the surrounding lands and made its dialect a common tongue. The most influential period of the city was the end of the 15th century, when the nearby province of Friesland was administered from Groningen. During this period (1492), the Martinitoren (Martini Tower) in the market square was built, which loomed over the city at a height of 97m (318ft 3in), making it the highest building in Europe at the time. The city's independence came to an end when it chose to join forces with the Spanish during the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648) in 1594. It later switched sides, joining the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

In 1614, the University of Groningen was founded, initially only for religious education and in the same period, the city expanded rapidly and a new city wall was built. That same wall was tested during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672-1674), when the city was attacked fiercely by the bishop of Münster, Christoph Bernhard von Galen (1606-1678). Fortunately, the city’s wall resisted and this event, known as Gronings Ontzet (Siege of Groningen), is celebrated with music and fireworks on 28th August each year.

Groningen has been called the ‘World Cycling City’ because 57% of all journeys made within the city are by bicycle and, as is the case with most Dutch cities, it is well adapted to the high number of cyclists. A large network of bike paths make it convenient to cycle to various destinations and, within the city, the bicycle is the most popular means of transportation. Groningen's nightlife depends largely on the population of students studying at Groningen University (28,000) and the Hanze University of Applied Sciences (25,000). Its cultural scene is vibrant and remarkable for a city of its size with the Grote Markt, the Vismarkt, the Poelestraat and Peperstraat (the surrounding streets) crowded every night of the week, with most bars not closing until 5.00am!

An absolute must for any visitor to the region is an excursion to the village of Bourtange. Located in the province of Groningen, it is actually 48km (30 miles) south-east of the city centre near the German border. Although it only has a population of 430 inhabitants, thousand of tourists flock to the village each year to see the star-shaped Festung (Fort) Bourtange. It was built in 1593 during the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648) when William I of Orange (1533-1584) wanted to control the only road between Germany and the city of Groningen which at the time was controlled by the Spanish. The fort was used until 1851, after which it was given up and it became a normal village. However, around 1960, living conditions in the village deteriorated to such a state that it was decided that Bourtange would be rebuilt to its former glory and today it is used as an open-air museum.

The Venue

Martinihal

The venue for this heat was a large events hall known as Martinihal, located adjacent to playing fields which were part of the Stadspark sports facility.

In the late 1960s, the municipality of Groningen revealed that an exhibition complex was to be built on the edge of the Groningen City Park. The Martinihal would consist of exhibition space, meeting rooms and a restaurant. The official opening took place in 1969 and hall had a ceiling height of 30m (8ft 5¼in) in order for it to cater for exhibitions such as boat shows offering sailboats with large standing masts.
 

The original Martinihal, built in 1969,
was renovated beyond recognition in the late 1990s

 

In the early 1970s, the building was extended with a multi-function hall for organizing (pop) concerts and sports competitions. The room was separated by a large open square area which could be used for car parking. The Event Hall had a capacity of about 2,500 visitors (concert) or 3,000 visitors (sports). Before the construction of the television studios in Aalsmeer, popular TV shows were frequently filmed here.

In 1978, the Martinihal Centre became a leading location in terms of conferences, meetings and exhibitions and in the early 1980s several extra rooms were built. In 1988, the name of the complex was change to Martinihal Groningen. The following year, the Martinihal was in need of renovation but this could not be financed by the Municipality of Groningen, so the Martinihal needed to find sponsors. However, there were no suitable candidates. The Martinihal was then transferred to the independent Art and Culture Department of the municipality and a new management team was appointed.

Another major renovation of the complex took place in 2000 with the former centre square being replaced by a new event and sports hall, which meets all international standards for sport. The former Event Hall was converted into the Martini Plaza Theatre and, with a capacity of 1600 seats, made it one of the five largest theatres in the Netherlands. In March 2002, the complex was officially reopened under the name Martini Plaza and later that year the complex was taken over by the Onderwijs Cultuur Sport Welzijn (OCSW) (Department of Education, Culture, Sports and Wellness).
 

The ‘new’ Martinihal, completed in 2002,
offers not only a sports hall but also a shopping plaza

 

The Martinihal became home to professional Dutch basketball club Nationale-Nederlande Donar in 1973, when Dutch company Nationale-Nederlande became the club’s first sponsor. This was to last for nine years after which the company stopped its sponsorship in 1982. Following this, the club reverted back to its original 1881 name of GBV Donar (Groninger Basketbalvereniging), and following several sponsorships between 1986 and 2009, its current name is the GasTerra Flames Groningen, following sponsorship by natural gas supply company GasTerra.

Interestingly some of the area now occupied by the Martiniplaza was host to the Dutch International in 1976.

Made in Colour • This programme may exist in Dutch Archives

 

NL

Zeskamp 1970-1971

Round 3, Heat 2

Event Staged: Saturday 27th March 1971
Venue: Martinihal, Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

European Transmissions (Local Timings):
NCRV (NL):
Saturday 27th March 1971, 8.20-9.35pm (Live)
Not transmitted in Great Britain

Weather Conditions: Not applicable as event was staged indoors

Teams: Drachten v. Linne v.
Rolde v. Winschoten

Game Results and Standings

Result

 Team

Points

League Aggregate

1st
2nd
3rd
4th

 DTDrachten l
 RRolde
l
 W Winschoten
l
 LLinne
l l

-
-
-
-

35

27

27

34

Photographs from this Event

 

The Drachten captain on the podium's top step

 

Dick Passchier addresses the audience as the trophies are awarded

 

The Host Town and Venue

Groningen, Groningen

Martinihal

Previously visited in Round 3, Heat 1.

Additional Information

Linne won this competition overall, but our league points table show that Drachten should have won it. Obviously, there is something awry with the results along the way...

Made in Colour • This programme may exist in Dutch Archives

 

NL

Zeskamp 1970-1971

Super Final

Event Staged: Saturday 24th April 1971
Venue: Groenoordhal (North Lobby Hall), Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands

European Transmissions (Local Timings):
NCRV (NL):
Saturday 24th April 1971, 8.20-9.35pm (Live)
Not transmitted in Great Britain

Weather Conditions: Not applicable as event was staged indoors

Teams): Alphen aan den Rijn v. Linne

Game Results and Standings

Result

 Team

Points

-
-

Result unknown

-
-

Alphen aan den Rijn qualified as Winners of Zeskamp 1969
for Jeux Sans Frontières at Rotterdam, Netherlands:
staged on Wednesday 7th July 1971

The Host Town and Venue

Leiden, Zuid-Holland

Groenoordhallen

Previously visited in Round 2, Heat 1.

Additional Information

This Super Final pitched 1970-1971 Zeskamp winners Linne against Alphen aan den Rijn, who had won Zeskamp in 1969.

Made in Colour • This programme may exist in Dutch Archives

 

JSFnetGB Series Guide pages researched by
Alan Hayes, David Hamilton, Neil Storer, Christos Moustakas, Philippe Minet,
Sébastien Dias, Ischa Bijl, Paul Leaver and JSFnet Websites